Adam Orford is a Ph.D. candidate at U.C. Berkeley’s Energy & Resources Group (ERG). He is currently focused on understanding the early interaction between conservative and environmental politics in the United States, including especially with respect to legislative developments during the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s. His dissertation is titled The Creation of Enemies: Investigating Conservative Environmental Polarization, 1945-1981. His work blends law, policy, political and social theory, and history. As an attorney prior to returning to academia, Adam represented public and private clients in complex environmental civil litigation and regulatory matters; conducted both trial and appellate litigation in federal and state courts across the country; and assisted with the environmental review and compliance aspects of numerous corporate transactions. In law school, he served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Columbia Journal of Environmental Law.
Ph.D., Energy & Resources, 2021
U.C. Berkeley Energy & Resources Group
M.P.P. / M.A., 2018
U.C. Berkeley Goldman School of Public Policy and U.C. Berkeley Energy & Resources Group
Columbia Law School
B.A. (Italian), 2002
Arizona State University
Nation’s Business was a monthly business magazine published by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, with a subscription list larger than Business Week, Forbes, or Fortune. This study explores how the magazine responded and adapted to the rise of environmentalism, and environmental regulation of business, by exploring its treatment of four topics: DDT, environmentalists, government regulation, and renewable energy. It is built on a full-text review of all issues of Nation’s Business published between 1945 and 1981. It reveals the development of a variety of anti-environmental logics and discourses, including the delegitimization of environmentalism as emotional and irrational, the undermining of scientific conclusions as uncertain, the monetization of decisionmaking using cost-benefit analysis, and the problematization of government overregulation. The study thus traces the origins of the anti-environmental policies of the Reagan Administration to the business community of the preceding decade.
This Article explores the development of the Clean Air Act of 1963, the first law to allow the federal government to fight air pollution rather than study it. The Article focuses on the postwar years – 1945-1963 – and explores the rise of public health medical research, cooperative federalism, and the desire to harness the powers of the federal government for domestic social improvement, as key precursors to environmental law. It examines the origins of the idea that the federal government should “do something” about air pollution, and how that idea was translated, through drafting, lobbying, politicking, hearings, debate, influence, and votes, into a new commitment to a national program to end air pollution in the United States. In addition to presenting new perspectives on this understudied period in the development of environmental law, it is hoped that this work will shed some light on the nature of political opposition to environmental regulation, which today is one of the greatest challenges to effective pollution control.
With climate change a present reality, governments are confronting the need to adapt their regulatory planning processes to withstand new and uncertain climate risks. This Article provides three new resources to support this essential work. First, it develops a new standard for assessing the quality of climate adaptation decisionmaking, focusing on defining the problem, quantifying adaptation benefits, and evaluating equitable distribution of risk. Second, it reviews California’s climate adaptation policy development efforts between 1988 and 2018 - from the state’s early efforts to study the problem, to later attempts at statewide strategic planning, until more recent work to integrate adaptation into existing regulatory processes - and applies the new assessment standard to illuminate many of the challenges that California has confronted. Third, the Article presents four case studies from California’s electric power regulatory sector - electric grid reliability planning processes, wildfire risk mapping, coastal generator siting, and rate case risk costing - to demonstrate the difficulties inherent in incorporating climate-relevant data into complex technical proceedings in a transparent and consistent fashion.
Maturing national data collection initiatives have created new possibilities for chemical risk analysis. This study demonstrates the potential for public datasets in this field, combining a population-level live birth dataset (~29 million records) and national pesticide use volume estimates (~3000 counties) over seven years (2006-2012) to examine whether mothers living in areas with high atrazine use experience higher than average birth defect rates.